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Posts published in “Windows”

Call Gates’ Ring Transitioning in IA-32 Mode

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Have you ever thought how transitions between different rings performed? Well, SYSENTER & SYSCALL used in modern OSs for transitioning between ring 3 to ring 0 but if there are other rings, then what’s Intel solution for entering them? The answer is call gates. The rest of this topic described how to use call gates in modern processors. 80386 and its successors have 4 levels protections which isolate and protect user programs from each other and the operating system. It…

x64 Inline Assembly in Windows Driver Kit

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As my testing always interferes with running assembly directly in kernel-level and unfortunately Microsoft no longer supports x64 inline assembly through their compilers and as I always have struggle creating a simple inline assembly project so I decided to create a post to describe how to create a Windows Driver Kit project with Inline assembly to run kernel code directly in a kernel driver. This terms only applies to x64 Windows Kernel Driver, you can use _asm and asm directly in…

Inside Windows Page Frame Number (PFN) – Part 2

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Hey there, In the previous part, I’d explained about Page Frame Number and its importance in the OSs architecture. In this part, I’ll trace PFN more practically. I strongly recommend to read the first part, to make sure you didn’t miss anything about basic concepts. As I described in the previous part, the PFN database is located at nt!MmPFNDatabase, in the previous versions of Windows (<Windows 10) it was statically located at 0xFFFFFA8000000000 but in Windows 10, it’s subject to ASLR.…

Inside Windows Page Frame Number (PFN) – Part 1

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Introduction (Page Frame Number) Windows and almost all the OSs use Page Frame Number Database in order to have a track of virtually allocated pages to know which page must be freed or evicted or if a page needs to be cached and etc. All of these kinds of stuff manages through a list, called Page Frame Number (PFN). A long list of explanation about the states of every physically and virtually allocated pages and its corresponding attributes. In the rest…

PyKD Tutorial – part 1

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Using windbg script syntax is such annoying thing that almost all reverse engineers have problems dealing with it but automating debugging gives such a power that can’t be easily ignored. A good solution to solve this problem is using the power and simplicity of Python and Windbg together. If you aware, Windbg also supports c-like binaries as extensions so there is a praiseworthy tool called PyKD which does the hard thing and connects Python and Windbg together in a straight and usable…